Discover Indonesia's Biodiversity and Conservation in 360

Tojo Una Una | Komodo National Park | Tanjung Puting National Park | Raja Ampat | North Sumatra | Belu Regency |Maumere Bay

Biodiversity and Conservation

Located in the epicentre of the Coral Triangle, the most diverse and biologically complex marine ecosystem on the planet, Indonesia boasts one of the highest levels of biodiversity in the world, with over 500 species of mammals, 781 species of reptiles, and over 1500 species of birds. It matches the richness and diversity of the Amazon rainforest.

Underwater, it is home to over 600 reef-building coral species (75 percent of all species known to science); 3000 species of reef fish (40 percent of the world’s coral reef species); 6 of the world’s 7 marine turtle species; and three-quarters of known molluscs.

In fact, the diversity of Indonesian marine life is hard to be precisely reported, new species are still being described and many more are still unknown.

Indonesia has the largest and most biodiverse coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses of any country in the world. Sadly, all are under pressure.

Many tourism operators throughout Indonesia are working hard to conserve their local natural environment. There are myriad conservation programs in place throughout the archipelago, from mangrove regeneration programs to coral nurseries and locally managed Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).

Impact Adventures features several remote tourism experiences amongst its portfolio of tours, that showcase this biodiversity and include visits to communities that are actively involved in conservation programs. Here are a few examples.

Togean Islands Mangrove Conservation

This tour visits the Lembanato Mangrove Conservation project on the Togean Islands in Central Sulawesi. Mangrove forests cover around 4800 hectares of the Togean Islands’ coastline and are of great ecological significance.

The areas visited on this tour have been protected and conserved by the local community since 1990 and aim to educate visitors on the importance of mangrove systems, both to coastal and marine environments.

Komodo National Park

UNESCO World Heritage site Komodo National Park is famous for its beautiful volcanic islands, pink sand beach and unique wildlife encounters including manta rays and the endemic Komodo dragon.

Located in East Nusa Tenggara, it’s the only place in the world you can see Komodo dragons in their natural habitat and was established a National Park in 1980. It’s also one of the best places in the world to encounter manta rays, with a recent citizen science project identifying over 1000 individuals within the marine protected area.

Coral Reef Conservation in Tojo Una-Una

Also in the Togean Islands of Central Sulawesi, this tour visits Tojo Una Una UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, where a local community of ocean lovers has established a marine conservation program.

This region is a hidden gem for divers and snorkelers, with marine scientists identifying 262 coral species, 596 reef fish, 555 molluscs, 336 gastropods, 211 bivalves and at least two cephalopod species. It is known for giant gorgonian sea fans that adorn the reef walls, and Jellyfish Lake, a brackish lake populated by thousands of stingless jellyfish.

Parts of the reef damaged by human activity are being restored by a group of local conservationists, and marine tourism will help them illustrate the importance of this marine protected area.

The Orangutans of Tanjung Puting National Park

Kalimantan’s Tanjung Puting Wildlife Reserve was declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1977. It is inhabited by over 38 species of mammals and 200 species of birds. This is a sanctuary for critically endangered orangutans, and tours visit one of three different camps where rescued orangutans are fed and rehabilitated.

The Biodiversity of Raja Ampat

Possibly the most biodiverse marine reserve on Earth, Raja Ampat boasts over 1,400 kinds of species of fish and over 550 species of coral. 75 per cent of the world’s coral species are found here. There are several MPAs in Raja Ampat with varying levels of protection. These zones help to protect and manage food security and regional ecological stability by implementing rules and prohibiting activities such as fishing.

Our tour visits several sites of incredible natural beauty including a hike in the limestone karst islands of Piaynemo and a snorkel through the beautiful coral gardens of Arborek Lagoon.

Introducing Gorontalo Province, the Wildlife Haven

Located at the north part of Sulawesi Island in Indonesia, Gorontalo has many national parks that are still well preserved and several pristine marine parks at the adjacent Tomini Bay and the Togean islands.

Map of Gorontalo in Sulawesi Island, Indonesia


Tarsius is one of the only primates that can be found in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Tarsius is a genus of the Tarsier family. Tarsiers are very small peculiar animals that are closely related to Lemurs and Slow Loris’. They are one of the smallest known primates, with their babies being about the size of a human thumb, and adults about the size of a fist.

Currently there are 12 types of Tarsiers that can be found and only live on the island of Sulawesi. They are endemic primates that are typical of Sulawesi Island. For wildlife tourists they are also known as the “ghost monkey” as they are nocturnal primates that usually hunt for insects at night.


Have you heard of Babirusas? Babirusas, Bahasa for “deer pigs” are endemic to Indonesia. A member of the pig family, in fact are one of the oldest living members of the family, the North Sulawesi Babirusa is known for its two pairs of tusks; both its upper and its lower pairs of canine teeth are greatly enlarged, and curve up and back towards the head. The upper canines of the male are so curved and enlarged that they emerge through the flesh, by way of holes, to pass through the top of the snout.

Currently there are three types of Babirusa worldwide; the Sulawesi Babirusa and Babirusa Togean found in Sulawesi, and Babirusa Buru found in Maluku.

Biodiversity and Conservation in 360

Tojo Una Una | Komodo National Park | Tanjung Puting National Park | Raja Ampat | North Sumatra | Belu Regency |Maumere Bay

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